5. Kohler et al. 1936. Growth stimulating properties of grass juice|
Growth of rats is greater on a diet of summer milk than winter milk. When grass juice was added to the winter milk diet, growth increased from 2 to 4 grams a day. It was concluded that there are important water-soluble substances in the juice that affect the nutritive value of summer milk.
6. Kohler. 1944. The effect of stage of growth on the chemistry of the grasses.
14. Smith. 1944. Chlorophyll: An experimental study of its water soluble derivatives
Younger grass tends to be richer in protein, soluble carbohydrates, carotene, vitamin C, thiamine and riboflavin. Using oats, Kohler found that several of the vitamins, protein, crude fat and chlorophyll reached peak concentrations at or near the jointing stage, hence the nutritive value of grass is likely to be optimal at this point.
7. Ohtake et al.
1985a. Studies on the constituents of green juice from young barley leaves. Effect on dietarily induced hypercholesterolemia in rats
Substances extracted from barley leaf juice lowered plasma cholesterol (after 9 days) of rats fed on a high cholesterol diet.
8. Ohtake et al. 1985b. Studies on the constituents of green juice from young barley leaves. Antiulcer activity of fractions from barley juice Green juice and fractions from green
juice of young barley leaves containing water soluble proteins and water soluble organic compounds showed anti- stomach ulcer activity in stressed rats.
9. Peryt et al. 1992. Mechanism of antimutagenicity of wheat sprout extracts
A supernatant extract from wheat grass reduced the production of carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbon (benzopyrene) derivatives. Inhibition of benzopyrene mutagenicity with non-chlorophyll containing wheat sprout
extract suggests that chlorophyll is not the main compound responsible.
10. Ben-Ayre et al. 2002. Wheat grass juice in the treatment of active distal ulcerative colitis
A randomized, double-blind, placebo trial was undertaken with 23 patients in Israel . Treatment with wheatgrass (100 cc a day for one month) reduced the overall disease activity and severity of rectal bleeding in patients with active distal ulcerative colitis. No serious
side effects were found. The authors concluded that ‘wheat grass juice appeared effective and safe as a single or adjuvant treatment of active distal ulcerative colitis’.
11. Carpenter. 1949. Clinical experiences with chlorophyll preparations
A clinical study using chlorophyll preparations to treat chronic osteomyelitis, osteomyelitis secondary to compound fractures and chronically infected wounds and ulcers. The study included many
patients that had been resistant to other forms of therapy. The author considered chlorophyll preparations not necessarily a cure, but was interested to find ‘such rapid eradication of infection and healing of wounds’. Photos show epithelialization and healing of lesions, chronic ulcers and a ‘grossly infected amputation stump’. In many of the wound healing and ulcer cases there was no evidence of recurrence of infection or of breakdown at 18
12. Smith & Livingston. 1943. Chlorophyll. An experimental study of its water soluble derivatives in wound healing
Wound healing involves an inflammatory (exudative) phase and a proliferative tissue growth and repair phase that presumably involves growth stimulating factors. This study tested various water soluble chlorophyll preparations and other agents including vitamin ointments and sulfathiazole on wounds created by
excising portions of skin from rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and dogs. Response in rate of healing tended to be greater for chlorophyll than with other agents tested (the data is summarized in several tables not reproducible here).
Conclusion: ‘On the basis of these observations it is suggested that chlorophyll preparations should be used much more extensively in the treatment of wounds and burns.’
13. Bowers. 1947. Chlorophyll in
wound healing and suppurative disease
Lieutenant Colonel Bowers of the US Army reports on the use of water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll in over 400 cases over a period of nine months. He (and colleagues) noted several major effects, notably: loss of odour associated with infected wounds; a stimulating effect on tissue formation (granulation tissue) when used as a dressing particularly for burns; and a drying effect in the case of abscesses,
sinus tracts, surface lesions and osteomyelitis. Mention is made of chlorophyll efficacy in treatment of cyst wounds, fistula-in-ano (6 cases), sarcoma/carcinoma (4 cases), ulcerative colitis (1 case), thoracic empyema (several cases, 2 particularly effective), gunshot wound sinus tracts (17 cases), decubitis ulcer (4 cases) and burns (4 patients). In 119 cases of compound fractures to limbs chlorophyll reduced odour and enhanced healing, in some cases
with exceptional results, e.g. legs saved from seemingly inevitable amputation. Numerous other cases and conditions are mentioned. Chlorophyll was comfortable as a wet dressing and was easily tolerated by patients. The author “is convinced that chlorophyll is the best agent known for use in the treatment of suppurative diseases, indolent ulcers or wherever stimulation of tissue repair is desired..” although it is not presented as a cure-all.
Reviews the chemistry of chlorophyll, including the structural formula (C 55H 72O 5N
4Mg) and provides a list of references. Chlorophyll can be obtained from leaves by extraction with acetone. Chlorophyll is similar to hemoglobin, but in hemoglobin iron is substituted for magnesium, globin is substituted for the phytyl radical, and at Carbon 4 ther is an allyl instead of en ethyl residue. Water-soluble chlorophyll is more preferable in clinical use than the oil-soluble form. This study examined the toxic effects of chlorophyll on rabbits
with the solution being administered by mouth, intravenously, intraperitoneally and subcutaneously. There was a total absence of toxic effects. Chlorophyll is thought to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth resulting in a bacteriostatic effect. It is important in the treatment of infected surface wounds and appears to contribute to rapid tissue repair.
15. Egner et al. 2001. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA
adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer (Qidong , China)
Residents of the area are at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) partly as a result of ingesting aflatoxin. Chlorophyllin was shown to be an inhibitor of aflatoxin carcinogenesis in animals, so this trial was carried out with 180 adult patients. Levels of aflatoxin-guanine in urine (associated with increased risk of liver cancer) were found to decrease 55%
over a four month period in comparison to placebo. No adverse events were reported.
16. Kohler, Elvehjem & Hart. 1938. The relation of the 'grass juice factor' to guinea pig nutrition
Guinea pigs were fed on winter milk or milk plus supplement. The winter milk was deficient in one or more essential factors necessary for normal development, and the animals faded away. When dried barley or wheat grass was given as a supplement, growth
was normal. The growth stimulating factor of grass is essential for maintenance and growth of guinea pigs. The active principle is soluble in plant juices and activity falls at room temperature.
17. Peryt et al. 1988. Antimutagenic effects of several subfractions of extract from wheat sprout
An aqueous extract from wheat sprout appears to contain two antimutagenic factors as assayed in laboratory bacteriological tests. One compound is of
low molecular weight and another of high molecular weight.
18. Brush & Lamb. 1942. The effect of the topical application of several substances on the healing of experimental cutaneous wounds
Wounds made on the abdominal wall of guinea pigs were treated with various substances, including chloramines, urea crystals and chlorophyll ointment. None were found to consistently exert an accelerating effect on wound healing. In the chlorophyll group 4 animals showed
accelerated healing and 7 displayed no effect.
19. Osborn. 1943. On the occurrence of antibacterial substances in green plants
A range of plants were tested for their antibacterial properties. Of the over 2000 species tested, extracts of 63 demonstrated inhibition of bacterial growth.
20. Zdzienicka et al. 1982. Antimutagenic action of some plant factors
Extracts from wheat, maize and pea sprouts inhibited mutagenic activity as assayed using bacterial strains. The activity affected activation of pro-mutagens but not direct mutagens.
21. Lai et al. 1980. Antimutagenic activities of common vegetables and their chlorophyll
Extractions from vegetables (carrots, lettuce, cabbage, parsley, spinach, broccoli) inhibited mutagenic activity in standard assays. Inhibitory activity was correlated with chlorophyll content.
22. Breinholt et al. 1995. Mechanisms of chlorophyllin anticarcinogenesis
against aflatoxin B-1
Chlorophyllin inhibits carcinogenesis due to aflatoxin. This study reports a noncovalent complex with aflatoxin which may be involved in anticarcinogenic activity.
23. Chernomorsky & Segelman. 1988. Review Article: Biological activities of chlorophyll derivatives
The authors review the anti-inflammatory, wound healing and odor reducing capabilities of chlorophyllin. Chlorophyllin has bacteriostatic
properties aiding in wound healing, and stimulates the production of hemoglobin and erythrocytes in anemic animals. It has been used to treat various kinds of skin lesions, burns and ulcers where it acts as a wound healing agent, stimulating granulation tissue and epithelization. In some cases chronic ulcers failed to respond but use of novel preparations has aided in these cases. The mode of action is not well understood but the authors suggest it may
involve the formation of complexes with proteins. Treatment with chlorophyll has been neglected in the past few decades as the use of steroids and antimicrobial products became more prevalent. New areas of application are suggested.
24. Marwaha et al. 2004. Wheat grass juice reduces transfusion requirements in patients with thalassemia major: a pilot study
Patients with thalassemia consuming wheat grass juice on a daily basis reduced on
average their requirements for blood transfusion. Families raised and prepared the wheat grass at home and a comparison was made with the requirements of the patient in the preceding year. In nearly all patients the mean interval between visits increased and the blood transfused decreased during the wheat grass period. The mechanism involved is unknown.
25. Goldberg. 1943. The use of water soluble chlorophyll in oral sepsis
Water soluble chlorophyll was used to treat mouth infections and following ‘dramatic and satisfactory’ early results, over 300 cases of Vincent’s stomatitis and pyorrhea have been treated. In pyorrhea the use of chlorophyll resulted in cessation of bleeding from gums and
growth of new tissue, and in Vincent’s stomatitis chlorophyll regularly brought about complete recovery and more promptly than with other agents. The non-toxic nature and soothing effect of chlorophyll is also beneficial.
26. Gahan, Kline & Finkle. 1943. Chlorophyll in the treatment of ulcers
Provides some historical information concerning the isolation of chlorophyll and its use in stimulating tissue growth. Ulcers of the skin were treated topically with chlorophyll ointment and aqueous solution. 19 of 25 patients responded favourably to the treatment, with
development of granulation tissue.
27. Lakhanpal et al. 1966. Evidence for an unidentified growth factor(s) from alfalfa and other plant sources
Factor(s) important for growth in guinea pigs were found in alfalfa, broccoli and grass clippings. They may or may not be related to the ‘grass juice factor’, but are organic in nature since they are not found in ash.